Iliad. Homer

Iliad. Homer

Homer’s Iliad is one of the greatest works of ancient Greece and had a profound influence on world literature. It is a classic epic poem that describes the Trojan War, a confrontation between Trojans and Achaeans.

To this day, scholars argue about the epic poem The Iliad, whether it is a depiction of real events or a fiction of the ancient poets, as well as its authorship. This poem by Homer, the poet to whom it is attributed, describes the main events of the last month of the siege of Troy. The Iliad consists of 24 cantos, the first describing the beginning of the conflict, the second listing the Trojan ships and Trojans, and the rest describing the events of the Trojan War. It is a sweeping work in which the protagonists of the Iliad are not only human beings, but also the gods of Olympus.

Main characters are

  • Agamemnon is the king of Mycenae and leader of the Achaeans.
  • Achilles is a brave leader of the Greeks, a hero, a half-god half-man.
  • Hector is a fearless Trojan warrior, son of Priam.

Other characters

  • Odysseus, Ajax, Menelaus and Diomedes are brave Achaean warriors and Achilles’ companions.
  • Patroclus is Achilles’ best friend.
  • Priam is the ruler of Troy.
  • Aeneas, Paris, Dolon – brave representatives of the Trojan army.
  • Helen is the wife of Menelaus, kidnapped by Paris and the cause of the Trojan War.
  • Andromache is the wife of Hector.
  • Zeus – the great god of Olympus, who promised to avenge Achilles on the Trojans.
  • Fetid is the nymph, mother of Achilles.
  • Hera, Athena, Poseidon, Hephaestus – the gods who supported the Achaeans.
  • Artemis, Apollo, Aphrodite, Ares are the gods who supported the Trojans.

End result

  • Achilles – kills Hector during the battle, returning his body to the Trojans.
  • Hector – dies in battle with Achilles, mortally wounded by a spear.
  • Agamemnon – accepts reconciliation offered by Achilles.
  • Patroclus – killed by Hector, appears in a dream to Achilles and demands that he bury him quickly.
  • Priam carries Hector’s body home.
  • Paris is killed by an accurate shot from Philoctetes’ bow.
  • Helen mourns Hector’s death.


Homer’s work is based on Greek mythology and the battle between Trojans and Achaeans cannot be imagined without the direct involvement of the gods. The theme of hatred runs through the poem, causing many casualties on both sides.

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